Demographics

According to the 2011 census, Romania’s population is 20,121,641. Like other countries in the region, its

Ethnic map of Romania based on 2011 census data

Ethnic map of Romania based on 2011 census data

population is expected to gradually decline in the coming years as a result of sub-replacement fertility rates and negative net migration rate. In October 2011, Romanians made up 88.9% of the population. The largest ethnic minorities are the Hungarians, 6.5% of the population, and Roma, 3.3% of the population. Hungarians constitute a majority in the counties of Harghita and Covasna. Other minorities include Ukrainians, Germans, Turks, Lipovans, and Tatars. In 1930, there were 745,421 Germans in Romania, but only about 36,000 remain today. As of 2009, there were also approximately 133,000 immigrants living in Romania, primarily from Moldova and China.

The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2013 was estimated at 1.31 children born per woman, which is below the replacement rate of 2.1, and one of the lowest in the world. In 2012, 31% of births were to unmarried women. The birth rate (9.49‰, 2012) is much lower than the mortality rate (11.84‰, 2012), resulting in a shrinking (−0.26% per year, 2012) and aging population (median age: 39.1, 2012), with approximately 14.9% of total population aged 65 years and over. The life expectancy in 2013 was estimated at 74.45 years (70.99 years male, 78.13 years female).

The number of Romanians and individuals with ancestors born in Romania living abroad is estimated at around 12 million. After the Romanian Revolution of 1989, a significant number of Romanians emigrated to other European countries, North America or Australia, because of better working conditions and academic possibilities offered abroad. Some 45,000 foreigners are present on the local labor market, of which about 30,000 are blue-collar workers.

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1866 4,424,961
1887 5,500,000 +24.3%
1899 5,956,690 +8.3%
1912 7,234,919 +21.5%
1930 18,057,028 +149.6%
1939 19,934,000 +10.4%
1941 13,535,757 −32.1%
1948 15,872,624 +17.3%
1956 17,489,450 +10.2%
1966 19,103,163 +9.2%
1977 21,559,910 +12.9%
1992 22,760,449 +5.6%
2002 21,680,974 −4.7%
2011 20,121,641 −7.2%
Figures prior to 1948 do not reflect current borders.